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Thread: Ye ol' dreaded "-1" code, EFI flashing, fuel-pump on, crank but no start

  1. #1
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    Ye ol' dreaded "-1" code, EFI flashing, fuel-pump on, crank but no start

    Hi all,

    I read a bunch of threads with no clear picture - yet. I will continue to research, but hopefully someone has resolved this issue and can save me a bunch of time; or a little time

    I have had my 03 Futura for... I don't know 12 years now? Been all around the country, some long rides (including 1500 in 36 Iron Butt), some trailering to West Coast, several trips to Tail of the Dragon, etc. Had my share of issues, but never this one until last 3 weeks. Then, twice in 3 weeks I am stranded...

    Both times I start at my home, all is fine. Fires right up. I ride a relatively short distance, park for 20 mins or so, try to leave - no love.

    Turn on key, it cycles through the power-up routine, EFI light is flashing, crank but no start. Yes, fuel pump is running. Yes, Kill switch is in the run position. Sorta odd is, when the kill switch is in the off position, the EFI light stops flashing - which is opposite of normal behavior.... But, kill switch off = no crank, so that part is normal... Anyway, kill switch in run, starter spins and engine cranks (until the battery craps out), but doesn't not try to fire at all. Either no spark, or injectors aren't firing. Or both - who knows. Highly unlikely the internal fuel hose is an issue, as last year I replaced the filter and the internal hose. I supposed anything is possible, BUT, if that was the issue it would not have fixed itself and then broke again, so I would have to have two different root causes with the same symptoms in a 3 week period... unlikely. Same time replaced the filer I repaired the through tank wiring for pump and level sending unit. PITA.... But, that bad wire caused a no-start (no fuel pump), so figured I'd replace the filter. Sending unit is bad - or needs calibration or something - Wont go to "full" and triggers low fuel warning at 120 Miles vs 160 or so. Anyway - another story....

    The first time this happened several weeks ago, I tried "everything" and then called for a ride. Before we left I thought, let's jump it. Sure enough, it fired right up - and worked fine a dozen or more starts since then. Yesterday, no matter what I tried; EFI flashing, "-1" code, crank but no start.

    I have left the battery disconnected for an hour, tried with and without the diag connectors connected, nothing. Earlier this spring I had to replace a coil. While in there I tested all the coils (resistance and ability to jump a 30KV gap (coil tester) ) - all good. I did a quick inspection on the wiring around the top half of the engine - found one bare spot on a front coil wire (12v) and fixed it. I did not look at every mm of every wire with a magnifying glass.

    From other posts this seems like a bad ground - somewhere.... Any help narrowing this down to the most common places would be most appreciated. If I ever find the root cause, I'll post it and maybe someone can make it sticky - save others some time...

    TIA all!

    Gary

  2. #2
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    Along with pulling connectors off of all the relays to make sure everything is clean, you might consider checking resistance across the crank angle sensor with the motor cold and then right after a ride while it's still hot. They've been very reliable, but maybe heat is causing its proper resistance to change.

    And if you think it's a ground connection, break both of the motor gounds free, spray some contact cleaner at them and retighten.
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  3. #3
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    Thanks - I'll give it a shot.

    Wish I could just ride this thing... I guess once you fix the most common issues it's pretty reliable, but sometimes these intermittent gremlins are SSOOOOOO annoying, especially when I have to walk 2 miles up hill in 95 degrees and humid after just taking a shower - and I miss my friends band playing... And it started raining by the time I got back with a trailer. And one of the tie-downs popped loose...

  4. #4
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    Seems to me that most of the gremlins are due to weak connectors - and of course the tubing failures allowing vacuum leaks in the intake. I suspect that everyone using E10 fuel can assume that the potting in the fuel pump plate will degrade at some point and the pump will fail - in my case, the fuel gauge went 1st. I think the best thing you can do is solder crimps where you can reach them and inspect/clean connectors where you can't.

    I love this stuff, It's a tad expensive as contact cleaners go, but a can will last a long time as it doesn't take much per connector - https://www.amazon.com/CAIG-D5S-6-Co...gateway&sr=8-7 it seems to be a bit mystical, but I stopped using dielectric grease a long while ago as this stuff works far better at keeping connectors clean.

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    My IAC/ISC is not working. Not sure if it's a cause or a symptom. Both internal coils test out per manual around 51 Ohms. I don't know what the supply voltage should be and on which pins, but I'm not measuring much of anything on any pins (a few hundred mv) - so it doesn't really matter. I suspect something +/- 12v or +/-5v, and no where near that. I can't believe the OEM PN is over $400?!??!?!?! WTF?!?!??! Needless to say I will not be buying an OEM one - if even needed. Did I mention I LOVE working on stuff?

  6. #6
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    Maybe some help here https://www.apriliaforum.com/forums/...&highlight=IAC

    Also, people have disassembled the IAC and cleaned the moving bits with some success.

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    I am not liking what I am finding.... I pulled main ECU connectors and all (4) IAC wires have connectivity back the ECU plug. I suppose I should check actual Ohms vs. beep/no beep.... BUT, I put it back together and tested voltage again at IAC - nada. I also tested voltage at TPS - nothing.... 2 for 2 sensors with no voltage.... I'll probably test a couple others that are easy to get at... I am dreading thinking this is an ECU issue, but seems like it's not switching a ground so some of the sensors and such are not getting power. I'm crying right now - pains me to think how much an ECU is - IF I can even find one! I'll try to backtrace the grounds from the ECU - HOPEFULLY the culprit lies in the wiring....

  8. #8
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    One of the things that will shut off both the fuel and ignition is the tip-over sensor. We've seen them fail w/o an indicated error code and iirc, the starter will still be able to crank, even though a -1 shows on the dash.

    U should also check the "engine stop" relay as it's in that same circuit.

  9. #9
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    U might also consider opening that big chunk of loom that forms a big loop behind the right side radiator as we've seen plenty of corroded wires causing problems.

    The ECUs have been very reliable - deal with the known the simple stuff 1st

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    Bleh.... typed up a response last night, but guess I never submitted.... ECU is easy, but expensive. Been looking at wiring diagram.. Could be bank/tilt/overturn sensor - maybe... Worth a shot. FWIW, no power at coils either. I think the only reason my fuel pump is running is it ALWAYS runs: couple years ago I was testing the R/R output and shorted something. Blew some fuses, burned the dashboard... dumba$$.... Since then, there is no "prime" ; key on = fuel pump on. So fact that mine is on now may be a completely different issue and poising the troubleshooting process...

  11. #11
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    the fuel pump issue aside, I think you should have power on one of the coil's primary wires - unless a one of the relays (engine stop or ignition) or that bank angle sensor are faulty. The relays are far easier to get to, start there

    assuming all the fuses are OK, of course

  12. #12
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    Fuses - yes - all good. The relays are are clicking, but maybe burned and not passing enough V or A. I've swapped the swappables with no joy. I will be bypassing them shortly.

  13. #13
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    Well, here's a fun 10 pages of reading to do. I'm still voting the bank angle sensor. https://www.apriliaforum.com/forums/...ngle%2C+bypass

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    I haven't checked that link, but wondering the the 10 pages of fun is what I already read - HoneyBadger? OK, checked the link - and yes - read that whole thing

    So far I think the root cause was the relay near the diode pack - the square one. It was clicking with key on, but not passing any current. Swapped with one I stole from an old Ford van (very common relay) and resolved that issue. My IAC went bad from me messing with it. Actually, I think it's probably "ok" - but a lot of slop in the worm drive of the valve. I thought it was causing a "no-run" issue (post relay fix), but no... I found an automotive one for $30 that works with minor "massaging"... Same symptoms - BARELY starts now - won't run more than a few seconds. If I disconnect the TPS it starts right up and runs fine, until you touch the throttle and then dies. When I was first jacking around with things I disconnected the TPS to test for voltage - and maybe moved the throttle with key on and EFI powered up.. Who knows... Hoping the TPS needs a reset and I'll be good. Downloaded TuneECU, but finding the cable in a local brick and mortar is a no-go. Time to order online and wait.... I hate waiting.... Once I get things sorted (hopefully I will) I will post info re IAC and such - nice to have options vs the $420 OEM one - RIDIC! The locking tabs broken off the other two relays, so I'm half tempted to replace them with the same as the "main" relay near the diode pack. We'll see... Like to get it back to "normal" first - then go from there. If you can think of anything other than TPS calibration LMK. I suppose it could have been damaged somehow, so wouldn't hurt to test it. Seems like there should be an easy way to to reset the zero / fully closed position, but the one small thread I found referencing a sequence of sorts seems to be BS, and the common thought is Axone, TuneECU, or similar... Current symptoms: TPS connected will BARELY start and run only a few seconds before it dies. The IAC tries to compensate for something (can see it moving) - but motor dies quickly... Disconnect the TPS entirely: EFI light and code 15, starts and idles fine and will idle foreever as long as you don't touch the throttle - at which point it dies immediately. TIA!

  15. #15
    apriliaforum expert RAS's Avatar
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    You'll need to access the ECU to reset that TPS. There's really no reason to expect it to run with it disconnected. Kinda surprised it even idles that way. May as well check it as well while yer at it
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